If you are outside of Japan, it is difficult to sample large variety of sake. If you are in Japan or plan to visit, then you are in luck with so many varieties readily available.
There is a beginner's guide in this web site that is worth reading: https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2037_sake.html
I am in agreement with the most of above article, except for the section on polishing of rice. It states that the more it is polished, the more flavorful the end product becomes. I would substitute the word "flavorful" with "clean tasting". When more of the rice is polished away, you taste less of the rice, thus resulting in cleaner taste.
For beginners, you can roughly characterize a sake by two factors: [a] dryness, and [b] acidity.
[a] Dryness (or sweetness) is related to the glucose (sugar) content - less sugar means more dry sake. Most sake label lists nihonshudo (explained in the referenced article), typically from -20 to +20, and more positive number means more dry sake. More sugar also usually means lower alcohol percentage.
[b] Acidity (sando _x) is listed on some sake labels, but not all. Acidity of about 1.5 is considered "neutral". Higher acidity results in more rich body, lower acidity results in cleaner taste.
When the bartender or chef asks what kind of sake you would like, and if you are not familiar with any brand of sake, you can specify those characteristics: dry/sweet (karakuchi/amakuchi, hū/Ćū), and rich/clean (noukou/tanrei, Zś/Wķ).
Hakkaisan recommended by another post is generally known for their slightly dry and clean taste. It's pretty popular and availability is good outside of Japan. I visited their brewery in Niigata about 6 months ago, and it is one of my favorite, too.