Is there any reason to not write a thanks coments for above answers at first???
so I do not feel very well, but will write it only for others.
Juminhyo(住民票) is one of important document, (copy is 写し utsushi)
so basically you must go to city/ward/town/village hall(役所 yakusyo) including branches(支所 shisho),
(if no busy, you can get it under 10 min, one copy fee is around 300Y usual)
Many cities are using vending machine (called 自動交付機 jido-kofu-ki)
that stands on major rail stations, bus terminals, larger shopping malls, conveniece stores and more,http://kk-information.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/kk-information_20...
(maybe no EN menu button, but you can call by handset=受話器 juwaki)
However, for using vending machine, you must get own card for this and more.
(Many Japanese now using new system "My Number Card".)
Mail delivery (郵送 yuso) is also limited,
some big cities, if you apply(申請 shinsei) in advance(事前 jizen) by call,
you can receive it at city hall out of business hours couter(時間外窓口 jikan-gai madoguchi).
Also only some big cities you can use online, called 電子申請(denshi-shinsei).http://www.shinsei.elg-front.jp/tokyo/navi/procInfo.do?fromAction=4&go...
If already you got yr "My Number Card",
it may be fastest at nearest convenience store, even at out of yr town. https://www.lg-waps.jp/index.htmlhttps://www.lg-waps.jp/01-00.html
Anyway, you should read and search yr town hall web first ASAP.
Mostly that info written in くらし kurashi = life or 住民課 (jumin-ka = resident section) pages.
Finding it not so hard, use translate function if with or Google translate.