I battled with "you" in Japanese for a long time. I just stopped using all except for "anata" or using the person's name in place of "you" (third person speech).
The language used in j-dramas is also not representative of how Japanese people speak in real life, scripted to fit the narrative and character relationships only, so I wouldn't use it as a tool for learning to speak Japanese. But if you're listening/watching in Japanese, knowing the difference can be helpful.
Here is my explanation (all "you"s):
"anata" is the safest one used for equals. standard for both Japanese people and speaking as a foreigner since that's one of the first words you learn. "Anata" is also used like "darling", "honey", "baby-doll" among spouses/couples. But you wouldn't use "anata" too much as you get to know the person, so say their name+san, +kun, +chan or something which is very safe.
Also, don't say "anata" to a doctor or teacher, just use "sensei".
"Anta" is the rude version of "anata" and I hear it spoken by females mainly.
Bottom line is: when in doubt, use "anata"
"kimi" can be used for familiars/nonfamiliars but I would avoid using it. Also, "kimi" is used in songs, etc. kind in a romantic way.
"omae" is used for those below you in age, experience, social status, also would avoid using it. Can be condescending and quite rude if used wrong. But usually seniors use it on juniors (school, firm, clubs)
Other pronunc. - "Omee" pretty rude too, male's version of "anta"
- "Omaa" - heard this one while travelling in the countryside
"teme" is a no-no even in real-life Japan. In English, "you bastard, "sunofabitch", "mother-youknowwhat" all apply, but since Japanese doesn't really have an abundance of swear words (even kids say "kuso" (shit)), "teme" is probably the rudest in common usage.
"kisama" is another no-no as samurai/royalty elites used it to address commoners or people they hate. But it's still used today with perhaps a little more negative undertones than "teme", but you gotta be a real ass or talking to a real ass to pull this one out... Samurai films, gangster flicks, manga, etc. use this a lot but that doesn't mean you can too =)
Other pronunc. - "kisan" (used in Fukuoka and other locales), the dirtiest "you"
Other people please let me know what I missed, errors.